Worldwide, the most threatening disease in women is Breast Cancer. About 12% of women are affecting with breast cancer. All of us think that breast cancer is only one disease. But No, it has different forms. Based on the appearance of the cancer cells under the microscope breast cancers are categorized into several kinds. Look through the complete article to know what are the different types of cancer in detail. Once you know the types of breast cancer, it will better for you which type of breast cancer that you caught with. Also, you can find the appropriate treatment available to you.
Know more: What are the causes of breast cancer?
Cancer occurs due to abnormal changes in the genes that help to regulate the growth of cells. In other words, breast cancer is a malignant tumor that occurs due to an uncontrollable division of healthy cells. Don’t think all breast cancers are same. Since there are different types of breast cancer, better to understand which type do you have and plot the difference among other types of cancers. Most of the cancers are carcinomas that mean a type of cancer that occurs in cells present in breast tissue. Some other are adenocarcinomas, a carcinoma type that seen in glandular tissue. Also, we have other types of breast cancer which begins in cells of muscles, connective tissues, and fat. The most common types of breast cancer include the following.
- Ductal Carcinoma in situ.
- Invasive Ductal Carcinoma.
- Invasive Lobular Carcinoma.
- Inflammatory Breast Cancer.
- Paget’s Disease of the Nipple.
- Phyllodes Tumors of the Breast.
- Metastatic Breast Cancer.
- Breast Cancer in Men
Ductal Carcinoma in Situ
Ductal Carcinoma in Situ, also known to be Non-Invasive Breast cancer or Pre-invasive Breast Cancer. Also, in its short form Ductal Breast Cancer. The term Ductal means milk ducts while Carcinoma means cancer in any tissues that include breast tissues also. Situ refers to the original place. Since cancer affects tissues of milk ducts, the cancer is named with Ductal Carcinoma in Situ. Since this type of carcinoma doesn’t spread to surrounding places other than breast tissue, it is termed as Non-Invasive. Sometimes Ductal Carcinoma in Situ also known as Intraductal Carcinoma. This kind of cancer is not a life-threatening disease but left untreated; the DCIS can increase the risk of getting invasive cancers.
In addition to this, when you have Ductal Carcinoma in Situ, the chances of recurrences will be high. Mostly, this type of cancer will reoccur within 5 to 10 years after diagnosis. Research shows that the recurrence percentage of this cancer type is about 30%. But if you take radiation therapy after having surgery reduces the risk to 15%. Several Scientists do research and found that about 60% of new breast cancers are of this type.
Invasive Ductal Carcinoma
Invasive Ductal Carcinoma, also known to be Infiltrating Ductal Carcinoma, IDC Breast Cancer. What is Invasive Ductal Carcinoma? The term Invasive means spreading or invade. Ductal means milk ducts that present in breast tissue which carries milk to nipples from milk-producing lobules. Since this type of breast cancer spreads from breast tissue to other tissues in the body, it is named as Invasive Ductal Carcinoma. Within a short time, this kind of breast carcinoma spreads to lymph nodes and also to other body parts. The signs and symptoms of Invasive Ductal Carcinoma are a lump in the breast or armpit, swelling, redness, nipple discharge. About 1,80,000 women came across to this invasive type cancer and diagnosed with Invasive Ductal Carcinoma. Though this kind of cancer is mostly seen in women but also affects men also.
IDC can be divided into subtypes based on the behavior of cancer cells. The subtypes of invasive breast cancer include the following.
- Tubular Carcinoma of the Breast.
- Medullary Carcinoma of the Breast.
- Mucinous Carcinoma of the Breast.
- Papillary Carcinoma of the Breast.
- Cribriform Carcinoma of the Breast.
Read more: Stages of breast cancer
1. Tubular Carcinoma of the Breast
Tubular Carcinoma is the first type of Invasive Breast Cancer. This cancer type is usually tiny of about 1cm or less and looks like tube structures, hence called tubules. These tumors seem to be like healthy tissues and grow slowly. Studies prove that average age of tubular carcinoma diagnosis is the early 50s. This type of breast cancer is rare in men. Out of all breast cancers, this variety of breast cancer is about 8 to 27%.
2. Medullary Carcinoma of the Breast
Among the subtypes of invasive breast cancer, Medullary Carcinoma breast cancer type is one. This carcinoma type begins in the milk duct and spreads to near tissues. The tumor of this carcinoma is soft and fleshy mass and occurs in the part of the brain called Medulla, hence named as Medullary Carcinoma. This is a very rare type of cancer that accounts about 3-5% of all types of cancer. This cancer type can affect women of any age but mostly for the late 40s and early 50s. Women who have BRCA1 mutation can come up against Medullary Carcinoma.
3. Mucinous Carcinoma of the Breast
Mucinous carcinoma is also one of the types of breast cancer in invasive kind. In our body, mucus is present in the inner linings. Some types of cancer cells form mucus and take an active role in Mucinous Carcinoma. Hence, when these cancer cells float in mucin, an ingredient present in sticky substance mucus, this type of cancer disease occurs. Mucinous Carcinoma doesn’t spread to lymph nodes like other different types of cancer. In all types of cancers, the range of mucinous carcinoma is about 2-3%. Like Medullary Carcinoma, this is rare cancer for men.
4. Papillary Carcinoma of the Breast
In Papillary Carcinoma, the breast cancer cells appear in finger-like projections or papules. The main difference between this cancer and other types of cancer is the cells appear fern-like structure. We can see this carcinoma type rarely that accounts only 3% of all various types of cancer. Often, it has a better prognosis when compared with other forms of cancer. People who have Papillary Carcinoma may also face Ductal carcinoma in situ breast cancer. In some cases, the cancer cells of Papillary Carcinoma are in tiny size, hence called Micropapillary.
5. Cribriform Carcinoma of the Breast
In Cribriform Breast Carcinoma, the cancer cells occupy breast ducts and lobules in nestlike formations. Usually, this breast cancer type is low-grade which means that cells are visible like healthy cells and tissues. Within this cancer tumor, holes exist between cancer cells that seem like swiss cheese. Of all invasive breast cancer types, cribriform is about 5-6%.
Invasive Lobular Carcinoma
Invasive Lobular Carcinoma is the second type in Invasive Breast Cancer Types. Also, the another name of invasive lobular carcinoma is infiltrating lobular carcinoma. The word invasive means to spread, Lobular means milk-producing lobules while carcinoma means any cancer that forms in tissues. In brief, Invasive breast cancer means spreading of cancer from milk lobules to other tissues around the breast. Lobular carcinoma in situ occurs due to a formation of abnormal cells in the lobules. When this LCIS is untreated, this invasive breast cancer will develop. This breast sarcoma accounts of about 1 out of 10 invasive breast cancer types.
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An oncologist will test whether there exist receptors or not. If HER2 receptors are present, it is HER2 positive breast cancer. Otherwise, it is triple negative breast cancer. This cancer type is hard to detect with a mammogram. Invasive Lobular Breast Cancer can affect women at any age but most commonly for women having age 55 years.
Inflammatory Breast Cancer
Inflammatory Breast Cancer is one of the types of Breast cancer. In this kind of cancer, you can’t find any tumors or lumps. Instead of tumors, IBC makes the skin near the breast into red color. Often it may give pitted appearance and leads to swelling. IBC grows in the form of sheets, instead of solid tumor or a palpable mass. In early stages, IBC will occur due to infection in the breast called ‘mastitis’ and treated with antibiotics. If the symptoms don’t respond to these antibiotics, then a doctor will find cancer cells through Biopsy. This is aggressive cancer type that ranges between 1-3% of all types of breast cancer pictures.
Inflammatory Breast Cancer will grow fastly and spreads to other healthy tissues within the body. Hence, it is necessary to identify the types of breast cancer symptoms and take a proper treatment. The common symptoms that you have when come up with this kind of cancer are
- Nipple flattening.
- An increase in the size of a breast.
- Nipple Discharge.
- Breast is firmer or harder than usual.
- Pink, red color and sometimes look like an orange peel.
- Breast pain and swollen lymph nodes.
Paget’s Disease of the Nipple
Paget’s Disease of the Nipple is also known as Paget disease of breast or Mammary Paget Disease. This is a rare type of cancer in which dark circles occur around the nipple called areola. Also, this cancer types leads to the occurrence of eczema. The nipple and areola will turn to red, scaly and causes irritation and itchiness. Mainly this cancer occurs due to malignant cells that form in the epidermis under the nipple skin. Malignant cells, also Paget cells are nothing but large cells with clear cytoplasm having hyperchromic nuclei situated all over the epidermis. These Paget cells can appear either in single cells or small group of cells. When these cells obstruct the epithelial barrier, it results in fluid accumulation in the skin that can cause damage to the areola.
Among different types of breast cancers, about 1-4% of women may experience this breast cancer type. Often this kind of cancer can also occur in pregnancy women. About 97% of the people with Paget’s Disease can also get other types of cancers. The common tumors that occur along with Mammary Cancer are Duct Carcinoma in Situ and Invasive Breast Cancer. The average age for diagnosis of Paget’s disease of the breast is 57 years. Adolescents and the people in late 80s can get this breast carcinoma type.
Phyllodes Tumors of the Breast
The term phyllodes is a Greek word which means leaflike. Since the tumor cells of this kind of cancer appear in leaf form, named as Phyllodes Tumors of the Breast. The other names of Phyllodes tumors of the breast are phylloides tumor and cystosarcoma phyllodes. Epithelial and a cellular stromal(supportive tissue of the breast) are the main components to cause Phyllodes Tumors. Based on the mitotic activity, cellularity stromal features, the phyllodes tumors are divided into three types. The different kinds of cancer are Benign, Borderline, and Malignant.
About 10% of breast cancer patients can have distant metastases and 20% of malignant tumors. All the three kinds of cancers tend to grow quickly and need surgery to prevent the phyllodes tumors coming back. Chemotherapy and radiation therapy are not effective for this variety of breast cancer. Although this breast cancer type grows quickly but not spread to other healthy tissues that surround breast. This type of cancer disease mostly affects female having age between 40 to 50 years before menopause. Like other different forms of cancer, Phyllodes Tumors affects men rarely.
Metastatic Breast Cancer
Of all the types of breast cancers, Metastatic Breast Cancer is also one kind. Metastatic Breast Cancer is an advanced breast cancer in which secondary tumors will build up. The alternative names for this breast cancer type are Metastases and stage 4 breast cancer. Unlike other kinds of cancers, Metastatic breast cancer spreads the disease to auxiliary lymph nodes. The common places that this breast cancer type affect are bone, lungs, brain, and liver. Generally, it occurs after several years of primary breast cancer and also gets at the same time with primary breast cancer in some cases. Metastatic breast cancer has no cure, but the treatment can help to live for several years. Often 90% of breast cancer deaths are due to metastatic breast cancer or metastases.
Male Breast Cancer
Not only women, but men also get breast cancer, but the chances are very rare. Hence, male breast cancer is also one among types of breast cancer. About 2000 men are affecting from the male breast cancer and 450 deaths recorded annually. Male breast cancer can affect people of any age but the most men having 60 to 70 years can get this male breast cancer. Studies prove that about all types of breast cancers, the occurrence of male breast cancer is 1% only. If the breast tissues get a malignant tumor, then the male breast cancer will occur. A Malignant tumor is nothing but cancer cells that multiply and divide uncontrollably and spreads to other healthy tissues. Like women, men’s breast tissues are also susceptible to cancer. Also, this type of cancer occurs due to hormonal changes in the puberty stage. The symptoms and treatment for both men and women are identical.
But do you think why breast cancer is rare in men while compared to women? The reason is the breast ducts of men are less developed and has less growth in comparison with female hormones. Teenage boys must be aware of gynecomastia which is the common male cancer disorder. Often, Gynecomastia is not cancer, but it stimulates the growth of cells under the nipple area.