What is Ebola Virus Disease EVD? It is the disease caused by the Ebola Virus. EVD is also known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever or simply Ebola fever or Ebola. This disease was first discovered in 1976 which was burst in two places namely Nzara & Yambuku located near the Ebola river. The World Health Organisation spotted a total of 24 outbreaks which includes 1716 cases. The largest & most complex burst out happens in the West Africa from December 2013 to January 2016 with 28,657 cases and 11,325 deaths. The Ebola disease affected persons has high fatality rate.
About Ebola Virus Disease
Ebola Virus is a hemorrhagic fever caused by the virus family Filoviridae. It is closely related to the Marburg Virus. Filoviridae family consists of five virus species namely Zaire ebolavirus, Sudan virus, Taï Forest virus, Bundibugyo virus, Reston virus. Out of the five, four viruses causes diseases in humans, and the fifth one causes disease in non-humans like monkeys, gorillas, and chimpanzees. The Zaire ebolavirus is the primary cause of the 2014 West Africa outbreak. You will observe the symptoms of the EVD from 2 days to 21 days. Initially, you will spot the symptoms like sudden fever, muscle pain, sore throat. If you do not treat the disease, it leads to severe complications like diarrhea, internal and external bleeding, impair kidneys & lungs.
Structure of Ebola Virus
Ebola carries a negative sense RNA genome in virions which are in a cylindrical or tubular shape. It consists of the matrix, viral envelope, and nucleocapsid components. The diameter of the cylinders is approximately 80 nm and 19 kb long. Ebola genome consists structural proteins including glycoprotein (GP), nucleoprotein (NP). Also, includes matrix proteins VP24 and VP40, nonstructural proteins VP30 and VP35, and viral polymerase. The glycoproteins locate with the spacing of 10nm. Viral Proteins VP24 and VP40 locate between the envelope and nucleocapsid in the matrix space. The virus attacks the body by entering into the host receptors present in the host cell.
Ebola Virus Pictures
Several experiments suggest that the GP present in the Ebola Genome is responsible for the occurrence of the disease. Particularly, GP enters its contents into the monocytes or macrophages in the body. Due to this viral particles releases the cytokines into endothelial cells which cause inflammation or fever. Thus Glycoproteins alters the immune system and causes damage to the vascular integrity. The endothelial cells start affecting after 3 days exposure to the virus. It leads to the blood vessels injury. This damage occurs due to the entry of the Ebola virus into the body which decreases the integrins responsible for cell adhesion. This results in the liver damage and blood clotting. The over bleeding causes swelling and shock due to loss of the blood. Refer the below Ebola Virus Pictures to know the brief idea of how the body is infecting through the virus.
How Ebola Virus Spread?
The Ebola Virus spreads among the people through the direct contact of fluids like the blood of infected individuals and animals. Also, spreads through the direct contact of the broken skin, mucous membranes and human to human transmission. Body fluids like breast milk, saliva, mucus, feces, semen are also responsible for spreading the virus. In the case of burial ceremonies, due to direct contact with the dead person, the griever can get the Ebola. People will affect the Ebola fever by the direct contact of infected fruit bats. In some cases like the transmission of the semen, this disease occurs. The incubation period for the identification of the symptoms is from 2 days to 21 days.
To know the complete description of the Ebola Virus Disease, follow the below link.